The structure of human knowledge in the fields of humanities and social sciences, including management as a discipline, consists of philosophical assumptions and foundations, scientific principles and theories, and the and practical achievements for solving problems. Th More
The structure of human knowledge in the fields of humanities and social sciences, including management as a discipline, consists of philosophical assumptions and foundations, scientific principles and theories, and the and practical achievements for solving problems. The philosophical foundations of every knowledge are conventionally composed of elements of value, epistemology, ontology, anthropology, and methodology, which are referred to as the components of scientific paradigm. The new philosophy trend in the recent centuries, has shifted from the positivist paradigm to critical and interpretative paradigms, and is shaped into the context of the postmodern paradigm, the pragmatism tradition, and the complexity theory. Each of the above scientific paradigms has foundations in values, epistemology, ontology, anthropology, methodology and its own research methods. This means that today's knowledge in each field, due to the effects of each conventional philosophy of science paradigms, has led to the production of different scientific principles and theories and the distinctive applied achievements. So, opinions and ideas of the thinkers in each field are different. The shifting paradigm from positivism to interpretativeism not only has contributed to the fields of humanities and social sciences, but also effects the fields of science and engineering, such as, the emergence of fuzzy logic along with mathematical logic in the field of basic sciences, quantum mechanics view alongside Newtonian mechanics in the field of engineering. In this paper, we seek to recognize the knowledge developments roots in the branches of industrial engineering, such as the development of "hard operations research", " soft operations research " and "hard systems to soft systems thinking" and "statistical quality control" To "Total Quality Management". Under the influence of paradigmatic changes, developments have taken place in other branches of knowledge forming the industrial engineering as an interdisciplinary scientific discipline for the future. We also examine the systemic methods paradigmatic foundations influenced by the above paradigms and examine how to influence the methods of analysis and problem-solving methods with respect to the differences in their basics, philosophies and paradigms.